Established July 2, 1960
Click here to download the park's printable history.
Big Bone Lick is a unique state park showcasing the remains of some of America’s most intriguing Ice Age Megafauna. Once covered with swamps, the land that makes up Big Bone Lick featured a combination of odorous minerals and saline water that animals found difficult to resist.
For centuries great beasts of the Pleistocene era came to the swampy land in what is now known as northern Kentucky to feed. Animals that frequented Big Bone Lick included bison, both the ancient and the modern variety; primitive horses, giant mammoths and mastodons, the enormous stag-moose, and the ground sloth. The earliest peoples, from the Pre-Paleo Period (13,000 BC) down to the Late Woodland Period (AD 1000), found a seemingly endless supply of wild game to hunt in and around the mineral and salt springs and Big Bone Lick became a killing ground for thousands of years. Over the millennia, the bones gradually accumulated and were frequently covered by flooding sediments, preserving them for modern archaeologists and paleontologists to recover in the future.
American Indians, and later the settlers from the east coast marveled at the “big bones” that lay scattered about the lick. Word of these intriguing remains became part of Indian lore until in 1739 a French Canadian explorer and soldier, Charles LeMoyne, second Baron DeLongueil discovered the site. In 1744 Robert Smith, an Indian trader, visited the area and removed fossils from their swampy bed. Kentucky explorer, John Findlay, noted the bones at the lick in 1752, and Robert McAfee described Big Bone Lick in his 1773 journal.
According to McAfee, the area of Big Bone Lick covered about 10 acres, completely barren of timber and greenery. The land containing the lick had been worn away to a depth of about three or four feet by countless animal hooves and tongues. A creek ran through the site, fed by two streams of salt water. McAfee and his surveying party found a great number of mammoth bones in and around the lick. He noted that on July 5, 1773, Captain Thomas Bullitt surveyed “a tract of very good land on Big Bone Creek.” He met some Delaware Indians who told him that the “big bones just as he saw them now, had been there ever since his remembrance, as well as that of his oldest people.” Due to the salt found at Big Bone, pioneers constructed a crude fort at the site to protect those who came there to collect the precious commodity.
Big Bone Lick had a successful salt making operation. Its proximity to the Ohio River made it ideal for the salt trade. The make one bushel of salt took 500-600 gallons of saline water from the salt springs. The water was boiled down until only the salt remained. Entrepreneurs installed large, flat evaporating furnaces to create salt more quickly and efficiently. Nevertheless, by 1812, due to the discovery of other salt deposits in the Ohio Valley, the salt industry of Big Bone Lick came to a close.
The ancient bones found in Kentucky soon became the talk of the scientific world. Collectors wanted specimens to add to their collections of curiosities. In 1803, Dr. William Goforth, a Cincinnati physician, collected and shipped five tons of bone specimens to Pittsburg around 1804, intending to send them to Philadelphia to be sold for use in scientific investigations.
Goforth’s collection remained in Pittsburg until an Irish traveler named Thomas Ashe met the collector and offered to be his agent in selling the bones. For a percentage of the net proceeds, Ashe would do all of the work in finding appropriate buyers. After obtaining possession of the collection, Ashe sent it to New Orleans where he was offered $7,000 for it. Instead, he took the collection to England and sold it there for a large sum, keeping the money for himself. The Royal College of Surgeons, Dr. Blake of Dublin, and Professor Monroe of Edinburgh obtained portions of the Goforth collection.
In an 1807 letter to President Thomas Jefferson, Goforth gave a description of some of the fossils in his former collection. He described the head of what he thought to be a mammoth. Some of the teeth weighed as much as twelve pounds each. One jawbone nearly filled a flour barrel. He reported to Jefferson that he also had some thighbones “of a monstrous size.”
Impressed with the description of the finds at Big Bone Lick, Jefferson sent General William Clark with a party of ten men in 1807to collect more fossils. When the bones arrived at the White House, Jefferson and Dr. Gaspar Wistar studied them and divided the shipment into three collections. The president retained a small collection for his personal enjoyment; the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia received the second, and the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle of France obtained the third.
From time to time, other collections of fossils from Big Bone Lick appeared in various cities in America. New York City displayed one such collection. An account written by early American scientist, Benjamin Silliman of Yale told of seeing twenty-two tusks and one skull that weighed in excess of 5,000 pounds. Academic interest in Big Bone Lick continued to grow.
During the first half of the nineteenth century, Big Bone Lick once again became the center of activity when the area became a health resort. The mineral-laden waters that had drawn the animals to the site now drew people who wished to “take the waters” and a restorative to the health. The Clay Hotel, built shortly after 1800 catered to these guests. Bathhouses lined the major creek at Big Bone Lick. Bathers would modestly emerge from these shelters and enter the “healing” waters of the creek. As time went on, other spas became more fashionable and by 1847 Big Bone Lick ceased to be a health attraction.
The long history of Big Bone Lick began another chapter on August 25, 1953, when the Big Bone Lick Association, a local history society dedicated to promoting the site, decided to adopt resolutions that urged the creation of a state park. The Association wanted a museum constructed to house some of the objects found at Big Bone Lick. The citizens of Boone County responded generously to the call for donations. School children raised over two thousand dollars and by 1958, nearly six thousand had been donated to purchase land around the site. People from Boone and Kenton counties, the Covington-Kenton-Boone County Chamber of Commerce, and the Big Bone Lick Historical Society agreed to offer the land that had been acquired to the Parks Board for the Commonwealth of Kentucky for development of a state park. On July 2, 1960, the Parks Board accepted the land.
Between 1960 and 1968, the state purchased additional land bringing the total area to 250 acres. A lake was constructed as a water supply. In 1962, a systematic professional study of the Big Bone Lick site began under the direction of Dr. C. Bertrand Schultz, Director of the Museum and Regents Professor of Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology at the University of Nebraska. Several research grants funded a five-year dig during the summer months beginning in 1962.
Big Bone Lick State Historic Site now has 813 acres with 40 acres of picnic grounds and a 62-site campground with electricity, water, grills, bathhouse, and a pool. There are facilities for various recreational pursuits and mosaic trail system. The park’s modern museum and visitor center has paleontological and archaeological exhibits on display and the adjacent grounds also feature life-sized replicas of mammoth, mastodon, ground sloth, and bison.
Mary Draper Ingles
for an account of the incredible account of Mary Draper Ingles and her compelling story of survival and perseverance as she escaped from Native American captivity at Big Bone Lick, making her way through the wilderness some 500 miles to return home to Draper's Meadows, Virginia.
Big Bone Lick Prehistory Questionnaire for Students
Are you planning to bring an elementary or middle school group to the park? Consider incorporating this questionnaire into your field trip curriculum as the students prepare for their park visit or as a follow-up to the field trip when you return to the classroom. Click here
to download the questionnaire; find the answers here